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Class 10 science chapter 5 life processes notes

CHAPTER-6 LIFE PROCESS

LIFE PROCESSES-

The processes which, together perform the maintenance job are called life processes. Some processes are-

A) Nutrition B) Respiration C) Transportation D) Excretion

  • NUTRITION:-

A process to transfer source of energy from outside the body of the organism, which we call food to the inside, process called nutrition.

  • RESPIRATION:-

The process of break-down of food sources, by acquiring oxygen from outside the body is called respiration.

  • TRANSPORTATION:-

A process by which carrying food and oxygen from one place to another in the body, is called transportation.

  • EXCRETION:-

A process by which waste products remove from the body, is called excretion.

#NUTRITION-

Life process which require energy which is provided by nutrition.

Modes of nutrition- (a)Autotrophic Nutrition (b)Heterotrophic Nutrition

  • AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION-

Carbon and energy requirements of the autotrophic organism are fulfilled by photosynthesis.

In this process ,material is taken in the form of carbon dioxide and water which converted into carbohydrates in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll.

6CO₂+6H₂O→(chlorophyll)(sunlight) →C₆H₁₂O₆+6O₂

(Glucose)

The following events occur during photosynthesis process- (i)Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll.

  • Conversion of light energy to chemical energy and splitting of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.
  • Reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrates. Events-

Sunlight →absorbed by chlorophyll→ light energy →(covert) →chemical energy→

splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen →CO2 reduced to carbohydrates

*Chlorophyll is present in green dots of plant cell, these cell organelle are called chloroplasts.

*Stomata are tiny pores on the surface off the leaves these pores are responsible for exchange of gases. In stomata , there are guard cells the opening and closing of the pore is a function of guard cells.

  • HETEROTROPHIC NUTRITION:-

*Holozoic nutrition – animals take in solid food and breakdown it inside the body.

Ex- amoeba ,animals

* Saprophytic nutrition – organisms feed on dead decaying matter Ex-fungi

*Parasitic nutrition- parasites live inside or outside other organism(host)and derive nutrition from it.

Ex- cactus (plant parasitic), ticks etc,

#HOW UNICELLUAR ORGANISMS OBTAIN THEIR NUTRTION?

AMOEBA-

Amoeba takes in food using finger like extensions of the cell surface which fuse over the food particles forming a food vacuole.

PARAMECIUM-

They have definite shape and food is taken in at a specific spot. Food is moved to this spot by the movement of cilia.

NUTRITION IN HUMAN BEINGS-

Nutrition in animals-

  • Ingestion-Intake of food to the body
    • Digestion-food gets digested and energy is released in this process.
    • Absorption-Food is absorbed into the useful nutrients like carbohydrates, vitamins etc. (d)Assimilation- The nutrients rich food transported to the different cells and tissue by villis. (e)Egestion-Undigested is removed by this process.

Human digestive system- system starts with mouth 1.MOUTH-

  • Ingestion of food
    • -Teeth (chewing/grinding of food)
    • -salivary glands secrete →secrete saliva(salivary amylase) →change starch in sugar
  • OESOPHAGUS-

Food is moved to stomach by this food pipe. Movement is called peristatic movement.

  • STOMACH-

Stomach has some Gastric Juices

PepsinHCLMucus
(it breaks(it makes(it protects inner
downmediumliving of stomach)
protein )acidic) 
  • SMALL INTESTINE

-liver and pancreas

-liver secretes bile juice

-pancreas secretes pancreatic juices

-small intensive secretes some enzymes such as:

Carbohydrates→ Glucose

fats → fatty acid + Glycerol

Protein→ Amino acid

–PANCREATIC JUICE

*Trypsin→ Protein synthesize

*Lipase→ Emulsify fats→ fatty acid

→ Glycerol

–BILE JUICE

Large fat globules→ small fat globules

  • Large intestine –

It absorbs water and sends all nutrients to the other parts of body by villi.

  • Rectum-

It collects the waste and undigested food.

  • Anus-

by this egestion happens.

*Alimentary canals-A long tube extending from the mouth to the anus.

*Villi-The inner living of the small intestine has numerous finger like projections called villi.

RESPIRATION-

The process of breakdown of food sources by ago acquiring oxygen from outside the body and releasing of energy and CO₂ is called Respiration.

#TWO TYPES OF RESPIRATION

  • Aerobic Respiration –

(Air)Breaking down of food takes place in the presence of oxygen, is called aerobic respiration.

  • Anaerobic Respiration – (Without air)

Breaking down of food without the presence of oxygen, is called anaerobic respiration.

#DIFFRENCE BETWEEN AEROBIC AND ANEROBIC:

Aerobic RespirationAnaerobic Respiration
 
– Takes place in the presence of oxygen.– Takes place in absence of oxygen.
 
– In mitochondria– In yeast (cytoplasm).
 
-High amount of energy is released.– Less amount of energy is released

IN THIS PROCESS, TWO EVENTS HAPPEN AT A TIME

  • Gaseous exchange – Intake of oxygen and release of Carbon dioxide.
  • Breakdown of Sim food for releasing energy in cellular respiration.

#BREAKDOWN OF GLUCOSE BY VARIOUS PATHWAYS :

Energy released during cellular respiration is immediately used to synthesize a Molecule called ATP.

ATP is energy currency for most cellular process. ADP+P→(energy) →ADPP=ATP ATP=30.5KJ/mole

→carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged by diffusion

→the direction of diffusion depends upon the environmental condition and requirements of the plants

→ Animals have evolved different organs for the uptake of oxygen from the environment And exhale carbon dioxide.

  • Terrestrial animals →oxygen from atmosphere
  • Aquatic animals→ use the oxygen dissolved in water.

Rate of breathing in aquatic animals is much faster than seen in terrestrial organisms.

→ Fishes take in water through their mouths and force it past the gills where dissolved oxygen is taken up by blood.

#HUMAN RESPIRATION SYSTEM-

  • →As we breathe in , we lift our ribs and flatter our diaphragm , chest cavity becomes lager as a result.
  • →blood brings CO2 from rest of body and release into alveoli and oxygen in the alveolar blood vessels to be transported to all the cells of the body.

→the respiratory pigment hemoglobin has a very high affinity for oxygen. This pigment is present in the red blood corpuscles.

#TRANSPORTATION-

*TRANSPORTATION IN HUMAN BEINGS-

Human beings and any other organism need regular supply of food, oxygen, and waste materials in our bodies.

In blood,

There is plasma -Plasma transports food, carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes.

  • Red blood cells-carbon oxygen
  • Blood – transport salts

So our body needs a pumping organ to push blood around the body, to reach all the tissues. That organ is heart.

# HEART – OUR PUMP

Muscular organ -size-as fist

  • -heart has 4 chamber
  • -left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium and right ventricle.
  • -left atrium receives the oxygenated rich blood from lungs ,

left atrium relaxes when it is collecting this blood. It then contracts blood is transferred to left ventricle which expands left ventricle then contracts , the blood is pumped out of the body.

  • -Deoxygenated blood comes from the body to upper chamber on the right, the right atrium, as it expands .then right atrium contracts; blood transfer to right ventricles which is turn pumps it into the lungs for oxygenation.

-Separation of oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood is done by septum, a thick wall between right and left chamber.

-Double circulation;- blood travels twice the heart in one complete cycle of the body.

*Pulmonary circulation :–

Movement of blood from heart to the lungs and back to the heart.

*systemic circulation:-

Movement of blood from heart to rest of the body and back to the heart.

THREE CHAMBERED HEART:

– Amphibians and reptiles tolerate some mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood streams.

SINGLE CIRCULATION- IN FISHES,

They have two chambers to their hearts and blood is pumped to gills and passes to rest of Body in complete one cycle.

-BLOOD-(A FLUID CONNECTIVE TISSUE.)

  1. RBC – Red blood corpuscles
    1. -carries respiratory gases(O2,CO2)
    1. -contains hemoglobin which is responsible for red color in blood.
  • Blood platelets – helps in blood clotting.
  • WBC-white blood corpuscles.

-provide body defense by engulfing the germs and producing antibodies

4)Plasma: –

  • A yellow color fluid contains 90% water and 10% organic substances like plasma , proteins etc.
  • -Lymph – A yellow fluid that escapes from the blood capillaries into the intercellular spaces.

5) Blood vessels

ArteriesVeins
1)carry oxygenated blood from heart to body parts1)carry deoxygenated blood from body parts to heart
2)thick and elastic2)thin and less elastic
3)valves absent3)valves are present to prevent back flow of blood.
4)distributing vessel4)collecting vessel .

#TRANSPORTATION IN PLANTS –

When the distance between sail-contacting organs and to chlorophyll containing organ are large then diffusion processes will not be sufficient to provide raw material in leaves and energy in roots. A proper system of transportation is required.

*CONDUCTING TISSUE

Xylemphloem
1)carries water and minerals from the roots to other part of other plant of the plant.1)carries product of photosynthesis from leaves to the other part Of the plant
2)energy is not used2)energy is used
3)water and minerals are transported3)food is transported
4)only upward direction movement.4)upward and downward direction movement .

Transportation: –

  • It is the process by which plants lose water in the form of vapors.
    • It helps in absorption and upward movement of water and minerals by creating suction pull. And regulates the temperature in plants.

Translocation :-

  • Transportation of food produced in photosynthesis process to the other parts of the plant is called translocation.
    • It takes place in sieve tubes in both upward and downward directions.

#EXCRETION-

  • The biological process of removal of harmful metabolic waste from the body is called excretion.
    • Unicellular organism’s remove waste by simple diffusion from the body surface.

#EXCRETION IN HUMAN BEINGS-

Excretion systems includes

  • Kidneys
  • A pair of ureters
  • A urinary bladder.
  • Urethra
  • Kidneys present in the abdomen one on either side of the backbone.
    • Urine produced Passes through ureters to urinary bladder where it is stored until it is released through the urethra.
  • Kidney has cluster of thin walled blood capillaries with cup shaped and of a tube that Collects filtered urine.
    • Each kidney has large numbers of filtration units called nephrons packed close together.
    • It filters glucose, amino acids, salts and major amount of water.
    • Urine form in each kidney passed to long tube ureter, then collects in urinary bladder and pass
    • it out through Urethra.

#EXCRETION IN PLANTS –

  • Plants get rid of excess water by transpiration process.
    • Plants have waste as dead cells that can be lose by shedding of leaves.
    • Other waste products are stored as resins and gums especially an old xylem.
    • Plants also excrete some waste substances into soil around them,

# DIALYSIS –

A process, by which an artificial kidney removes nitrogenous waste products from the blood.

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