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Class 10 social science history Chapter 2 Nationalism in India

SOCIAL SCIENCE  –  QUESTION PAPER

TERM – II

Nationalism of India

                                         Important Questions

Q- 1. What was the main reason to withdraw the Non-cooperation Movement?

Ans : Causes of withdrawal of the Non-cooperation Movement:

(i) Due to the Chauri Chaura incident where 22 policemen were burnt alive, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the movement.

(ii) He felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be trained properly for mass movement.

(iii) Within the Congress, some leaders were tired of mass struggles and they now wanted to participate in elections.

Q- 2 Name three main ‘Satyagraha’ movements organized by Mahatma Gandhi successfully in favour of peasants in 1916 and 1917.

Ans : After arriving in India, Mahatma Gandhi organised several Satyagraha Movements in various places:

(i) Champaran: In 1917 he travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the exploitative plantation system.

(ii) Kheda: In 1917, he organised a Satyagraha Movement in support of the Kheda peasants in Gujarat. These peasants were very much worried due to crop failure and a plague epidemic. Since they could not pay the revenue, they demanded relaxation in revenue collection.

(iii) Ahmedabad: In 1918, he went to Ahmedabad to organise Satyagraha Movement among the workers of cotton mills.

Q- 3 Explain the idea of Satyagraha.

Ans : Satyagraha was a novel method of mass agitation. The idea of Satyagraha emphasized upon the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true and if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.

Through non-violent methods a Satyagraha could appeal the conscience of the oppressor by the power of truth, which was bound to win.

Q- 4 How did the plantation workers understand the idea of ‘Swaraj’? Explain.

Ans : The plantation workers understood the idea of Swaraj as-

(i) The right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed.

(ii) It meant retaining a link with villages from which they had come.

(iii) They interpreted the Swaraj in their own ways, imagining it to be a time when all sufferings and all troubles would be over

Q- 5 Explain any three effects of the Non-cooperation Movement on the economy of India.

Ans : The effects of Non-Cooperation Movement on the economic front were immense. They were:

1. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops were picketed, foreign cloth was burnt in huge bonfires.

2. The value of imported cloth halved between 1921-1922, it’s value decreasing from 102k to 57k.

3. In many paces merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.

4. People began discarding foreign cloth and wearing Indian ones, the production of Indian hand mills went up.

As a result, production of Indian textile mills and handloom went up largely.

Q- 6 Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of unified national movement” Can you explain that opportunity.

Ans. That opportunity was ‘Khilafat Issue’. The First World War ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the ottoman emperor-the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khailifa). To defend the khalifa’s temporal power, a khilafat committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919. A young generation of Muslims leaders likes the brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, Began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of unified national movement.

Q- 7 What was the role of women in the civil Disobedience movement?

Ans. (1) Participated is the salt Satyagraha in large number.

(2) They participated in protest marches and also manufactured salt.

(3) Many women went to jails

(4) In rural areas the women considered service to the nation a sacred duty.

Q- 8    What was the impact of Infamous Jallianwalla Bhag incident over Society and British Government?

Ans. (1) As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets in many north Indian towns.

(2) There were strikes, classes with the police and attacks on government buildings.

(3) The government responded with brutal repression, seeking to humiliate and terrorize people.

(4) Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets, and do salute to all sahibs.

(5) People were flogged and village around Gujranwala in Punjab now in Pakistan were bombed.

Q- 9 Why were Indians reacted against Rowlett Act?

Ans. 1. This Act had been hurriedly passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the united opposition of Indian Members.

(2) It gave the government enormous power to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

(3) The Rowlett Act acted as an instrument of suppression of civil rights of the Indians hence produced widespread discontent among masses.

Q- 10 Mention the features of the flag which was designed by Gandhiji?

Ans. In 1921 Gandhiji had designed the swaraj flag.

(1) It was a tricolor flag and had a spinning wheel in the centre representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.

(2)   Tricolors were-red, green and white.

(3) Carrying the flag, holding it aloft, during marches became a symbol of defiance.

Q- 11 Highlight the effects of Non Cooperation movement on the economy of India.

Ans. The effect of non co-operation on the economic front was more dramatic. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfire. The import of foreign cloths halved between 1921 and 1922 its value dropping from Rs 102 crore to Rs 57 crore. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. As the boycott movement spread, and people began discarding imported clothes and wearing only Indian ones, production of Indian textiles mills and handlooms went up.

Q- 12 What were the methods used by peasants of Awadh to achieve their goal? Explain.

Ans.

 1. In many places nai-dhobi bandhs were organized by panchayats to deprive landlords of the service of even barbers and washer men.

  • The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of beggar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
  • Some peasants denied doing beggar-work without at landlords’ farms without any payment.
  • As the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted.

Q- 13 How was the Civil obedience Movement different from Non Cooperation Movement? State any three points of difference.

Ans. 1. Non-cooperation Movement was launched in1920 to 1922, while the Civil Disobedience Movement continued 1929 to 1934.

2. The Non-cooperation Movement was launched because of the anger of Jallianwala Bagh and against Rowlett Act, while Civil Disobedience movement was launched against the arrival of Simon Commission.

3.The Idea of Non Cooperation include that if the Indians refused to cooperate British rule in India will would collapse within a year and swaraj would come. But the idea of Civil Disobedience Movement includes breaking colonial rules and disobeying the rules.

Q- 14 Why martial law was imposed in Punjab during the month of April in 1919?

  Ans. 1. Gandhiji in 1919 decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlett Act (1919).

(2) Rallies were organized in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshops, and

shops closed down.

(3) On April, the police in Amritsar fired upon a peaceful procession, provoke widespread attacks on banks, post office and railway stations.

(4) The British administration decided to clampdown on nationalists. Martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command.

Q- 15 Can you explain why some congress leaders were reluctant to boycott the council elections of November 1920?

Ans. (1)Many within the congress were however, concerned about the proposal of Gandhiji to start Non Cooperation Movement.

(2) They were reluctant to boycott the council elections scheduled for November 1920.

(3) They feared that the movement led to popular violence.

(4) In the months between September and December there was intense tussle within the congress.

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